Companies use various promotional tools to generate sales as developing good products and pricing them attractively is not enough.
Producers must take into account the “four Ps” (product, place, promotion, and price) as they are a clear matter of promotion. Depending on the company’s budget, marketers have to decide which tools – advertising, public relations, sales promotion or personal selling –to use and in what proportion.
In fist place, we have advertising, it is the tool that informs consumers about the existence and benefits of products and services and attempts to persuade them to buy them. The “word-of-mouth advertising” is one of the most known types of advertising. In most cases single companies tend to use the services of large advertising companies that in general are very expensive. Moreover, they can irritate people or stop attracting people’s attention if ads are repetitive.
Another tool used for promoting a product is public relations , that deals with maintaining, improving or protecting the image of a company or product in any medium read, viewed or heard .The most important characteristic of PR is that you don’t have to pay for the publicity done for your product. In addition to this, research shows that people are more likely to read and believe publicity than advertising. On the other hand, companies cannot control what is said or written in the mediums used for the public relations tool.
Also, we have sales promotions, that are temporary tactics designed to stimulate either earlier or stronger sales of a product. The most popular are: free samples, coupons and price reductions. Its advantages are that they increase sales, is a good short term tactical tool and promote sales in the future. In the contrary, has a lower profit margin than other promotional tools and that it can damage the branch image.
Finally, personal selling are often the only person from the company that customers see. Its advantages are that there is a direct contact with costumers (interaction), it is persuasive , creates loyalty and relationships can be built up. Its disadvantages are that it is very expensive , is only suitable for a small target market and people maybe don’t want to hear the person of the company.

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